Pruning is an important technical measure in the daily cultivation and management of flowers. In a broad sense, "pruning" refers to pruning trees, while "cutting" refers to cutting branches. Through shaping and pruning, not only can make the plant shape neat, hierarchical, staggered, moderate height, beautiful shape, improve the ornamental value; and timely cut off unnecessary branches, can save nutrients, adjust tree vigor, improve light transmission conditions, so as to regulate and control the growth and development of flowers and trees, promote the growth of robust, flowers and fruit. This paper explains the contents of flower and tree pruning, including pruning, heart picking, leaf picking, bud stripping, fruit thinning, bud wiping, tip cutting, root cutting and so on.
After pruning, foliage plants can germinate new branches and produce more new leaves, which can enhance the ornamental effect. If not pruned for a long time, one is that the branches sprouting at the base of flowers and trees grow in clumps, resulting in nutrient dispersion and imbalance in the proportion of branches and stems, and it is easy to see the phenomenon of luxuriant top branches and "bare legs" at the bottom; the second is to let them grow naturally, not only the branches grow disorderly and disorderly, but also the longer they grow, the higher they grow, some of the flowers and trees planted indoors become tall and tall, affecting the indoor harvesting Light also makes the flowering position move up, thus greatly reducing the number of flowers, which greatly affects the ornamental effect. Therefore, pruning is an essential daily management measure for growing flowers. The flower saying "seven percent depends on management and three percent depends on cutting" is a scientific truth and an important experience of flower cultivation.
The best time for flower pruning
There are many kinds of flowers and trees. Different types of flowers and trees have different pruning time. When pruning flowers and trees mainly for viewing flowers, we should master the flowering habits of different flowers and trees.
For spring flowering, such as plum blossom, green peach, winter jasmine, etc., their flower buds are formed on the branches of the first year, so it is not suitable to prune in winter. If pruning before sprouting in early spring, the flower branches will be cut off. Pruning should be carried out within 1-2 weeks after flowering, which can not only promote the germination of new shoots, but also form the next year's flower branches. If it is pruned in autumn and winter, the branches with flower buds in summer will be damaged, affecting the flowering of the next year.
All the flowers and trees that bloom on the branches of the same year, such as rose, hibiscus, poinsettia, hibiscus mutabilis, kumquat, bergamot, etc., should be pruned during the dormancy period in winter, so as to promote more shoots, more flowers and more fruits. Liana flowers, generally do not need pruning, only cut off the old and dense branches can be.
Flowers and trees mainly for foliage can also be pruned during dormancy
How to prune flowers in growing period
1. Fracture: in order to prevent branches from overgrowth, or to form a certain artistic shape, it is often broken when the buds sprout slightly in early spring. The extensive method is to break the branch by hand; the fine method is to cut the branch with a knife first, then bend the branch carefully, and smear mud on the incision to prevent excessive evaporation of water from the wound.
2. Remove bud (i.e. wipe bud): usually remove the lateral bud or more buds sprouted on the branch.
3. Pinching: remove 2-5cm from the top of new shoots to inhibit the growth of new shoots and transfer nutrients to reproductive growth. When the bud on the upper part of the new shoot sprouts a second shoot, it can wait for it to grow several leaves before picking again.
4. Twirling: twists the new shoots but does not break off the mother branch. It is usually used when the new shoots grow too long. The purpose of twirling shoots is to prevent the transportation of nutrients and water to the growing point, weaken the growth potential of branches and facilitate the formation of flower branches. At the same time, because the stimulation is small, it will not produce accessory shoots.
5. Curved branch (bending branch, binding branch, plate binding): that is, bending, binding or supporting the branch or new shoot to control the germination of the branch or its upper bud, and can also be used to shape various artistic forms of trees.
6. Leaf picking: by properly removing too many leaves to improve ventilation and light transmission conditions.
7. Picking buds: in order to obtain large and colorful flowers, we can remove side buds to promote the growth of main buds.
8. Fruit picking: sometimes in order to make the branches grow full and avoid excessive nutrient consumption, young fruits are often removed; sometimes in order to obtain large and good quality fruits, appropriate thinning is carried out; sometimes, in order to make the flowers open continuously, the fruits are often removed.
Four methods of flower pruning in dormancy period
1. Stem cutting: that is to cut off the stem or thick main branches and backbone branches. When cutting the thick lateral branches, first saw 1 / 3-2 / 5 from the bottom to the top under the base of the thick branches, and then cut them from the top to the bottom to avoid splitting. Finally, cut the wound with a sharp blade and apply protective agent to prevent insect disease or water evaporation.
2. Sparse cutting: the whole branch is cut off from the base without retaining the bud at the base. Thinning can make the branch distribution reasonable and even, improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions in the crown chamber, and reduce the occurrence of diseases and insect pests. The objects of thinning and cutting are mainly pest branches, disabled branches, dense branches in the bore, dry and dead branches, concurrent branches, over dense Cross branches, weak drooping branches and interference branches. Generally speaking, thinning and pruning should reduce the number of branches and buds, prevent excessive shoots from consuming nutrients, so it is conducive to flower bud differentiation, flowering and fruiting.
3. Cutting: cutting off part of annual branches and retaining several buds at the base. The purpose is to stimulate the germination of lateral buds below the cutting edge, sprout new shoots, increase the number of branches, and promote more leaves and flowers. At the same time, it can shorten the distance between branches and roots, and facilitate the transportation of nutrients. Cutting can also change the dominant position of the top and control the size of the crown and the length of the branches.
4. Shrinkage cutting: it is the cutting of perennial branches, mostly used for the regeneration of branch group or bone trunk branches, or tightening the crown of trees. When retracting, strong branches and erect branches should be left under the cutting mouth, and the wound should be small, so that the branches below the cutting mouth will grow vigorously or stimulate the sprouting of the pith buds. The main thing is to let the branches update centripetally, so as to be more robust.